Alexandre V. Boukalov

The Centre of Physical and Space Researches, International Institute of Socionics
"Physics of Consciousness and Life, Cosmology and Astrophysics" journal, issue 4, 2002 .

A reason of existence of one-dimensional and irreversible time. Possible age of the Universe

The representation of the observed Universe as an object inside a white or black hole, under the Schwarzschild sphere, allows to identify the observed physical time with an one-dimension gravitational radius, which is the part for the objects irreversible motion. It is a physical reason for existence of one-dimension and irreversible time in the Universe.
Key words: cosmology, one-dimension time, irreversibility of time, age of the Universe, white hole, black hole, arrow of time.

The calculation of the gravitation Universe radius RG = 2GMU / c2 = 89.4·109 light years, where MU =5.7·1053kg, and its observed size R~R0=R/2π [1] shows, that the observer and the observed space are situated within the Universe as a black or white hole.

Let us consider the Schwarzschild solution for the gravity field [1]:
,    (1)
with the physical time .

As I.D.Novikov showed [2], within the Schwarzschild sphere the coordinate r (under r<rg) acts as the time one, whereas the coordinate t becomes the space radial one and thus the coordinates r and t exchange their roles under r<rg. The change of symbols gives the following: , ,

Under this condition inside the black hole the three-dimensional section has an infinite space extent along the coordinate , whereas along the coordinates θ and φ it is closed and can be treated as a topological product of a sphere on a straight line. The three-dimensional volume of this section is infinite. The system is unstationary, it constricts along θ and φ, whereas the sphere radius changes from rg till zero and expands along [2]. If this reasoning is used for our Universe we obtain that the one-dimensional physical time of observer is directly connected with the gravity one-dimensional radius of the Universe as white or black hole. It is the physical reason for one-dimension and unreversibility of time. The Universe matter moves along the one-dimensional time coordinate within the Schwarzschild sphere. Thus the reason of this motion (with the light speed) and the time unreversibility are caused by the gravity forces. In general, due to the Universe expansion it looks like a white hole (a region with T+-expansion according to I.Novikov [2]), but situated under the Schwarzschild sphere. Under this situation the existence time τ does not change but the motion direction changes by the opposite one.

The existence time of this system, as come from singularity, is finite and makes up [2] for RG / c and vibration period
  and =22.3·109years    (3)

Now on the base of the astronomical data the Universe age is valued by 14·109 years. This value coincides with the Hubble time t0 = 1 / H0 = 14.21·109 years [1], obtained theoretically in our work and proved by the detection of the oldest Galaxy star, which has the age near 14·109 years [5].

The analogous values with τ0>t0 arise in many cosmological models with Λ≠0 [3]. At the sane time, we have proposed the conception of the matter movement from the white hole singularity under the Schwarzschild sphere and our conception explains the following:

  1. quantum birth of the Universe;
  2. vacuum dynamics of the Universe expansion;
  3. phase transition in vacuum under the Universe expansion;
  4. Universe objects removal from singularity in the one-dimensional time, treated as the gravity radius under the Universe expansion;
  5. presence of the directed time arrow, born by the vacuum gravity dynamics in the Schwarzschild sphere;
  6. reducing of the gravity forces and increasing of the antigravity ones, which means the Universe expansion acceleration, detected experimentally [6].

The proposed conception also explains why the vacuum dominates in the Universe and not the substance: it is naturally for the white or black hole.

I am extremely grateful prof. I.D.Novikov for useful discussions.



  1. Boukalov A. V. Determination of the Hubble parameter exact value. // Physics of Consciousness and Life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. 2004.  1.
  2. Novikov I.D., Frolov V.P. Physics of Black Holes (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad., 1989)
  3. Klapdor-Kleingrothau H.V., Zuber K. Teilchenastrophysik. B.G.Teubner GmbH, Stuttgart, 1997.
  4. Christlieb N. et al. A stellar relic from the early Milky Way. //Nature 419, 904906 (2002).
  5. Riess A. G. et al. Tests of the Accelerating Universe with Near-Infrared Observations of a High-Redshift Type Ia Supernova (astro-ph/0001384).
  6. Riess A.G. The Case for an Accelerating Universe from Supernovae (astro-ph/0005229).

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