Alexandre V. Boukalov

The Centre of Physical and Space Researches, International Institute of Socionics
"Physics of Consciousness and Life, Cosmology and Astrophysics" journal, issue 2, 2002 .

The quantity of information in alive organisms
and energy of vacuum

It is shown that the known estimations of information quantity in the alive organisms do not take into account the dynamics properties of alive matter. The new formulae, obtained for estimation of quantity of information in the alive organisms, give the values, which are much more then previous ones. These results display the differences between the alive and the lifeless for the first time. It is shown, that the ordering of the alive organisms is determined by the value of total energy of Universe. It is given the estimate of quantity of the alive cells, the biospheres and total biomass, equal to the earthly ones in a typical galaxy and in the Universe as a whole.
Key words: biological ordering, information in alive organism, quantum of event, temporary quantum, biomass of the Universe, biomass of the Galaxy, cell, biosphere of the Earth, quantity of the biospheres in the Universe, thermodynamics, theory of information.

It is known that the usual values of the biological degree of order, or the quantity of information in alive organisms, do not provide to make difference between the alive and lifeless structures. If one uses the thermodynamics criteria [8], as it was pointed out by L.Blumenfeld, an alive organism has no difference compared with a piece of rock of the same weight. Nevertheless, it is clear that the important difference between the alive and lifeless matter really exists. Thus, it has to be described in the more general formula for the evaluation of information or the degree of order for the alive organism compared with the lifeless matter. The Blumenfeld value, based on the Shennon formula, deals only with the thermodynamics aspect and does not refer to the dynamics aspects of the life processes, which provide  the difference between the alive and lifeless matters. Meanwhile, the thermodynamics and dynamics descriptions are the additional ones.

Under the evaluation of the ordering information for the cells disposition in organism [8] only their statical situation is taken into account. However already the physical realization of such unique cells situation needs much more information and energetical expenses[1].

Thus the alive organism investigation needs the consideration of the dynamics degrees of freedom, namely those ones, which provide the “alive” state for biological matter. What are these degrees of freedom?

According to the Blumenfeld approach the biological ordering, or the information quantity in energetical equipment, for a cell, which includes the 1010/11 aminoacid residuals, makes up:
I=kT lnw=kT ln(N!)=kT ln(1010÷11!)≈kT lnN=kT·1010÷12bit=10-9÷11J.     (1)

For a human organism, which includes ~ 1025 aminoacid residuals, this formula gives only
I=kT ln(1025!)≈kT·1025·ln1025≈1026kT≈106J, under T=300K.    (2)

Thus the alive matter does not differ by its ordering compared to any mineral of the same weight [8]. But this reasoning and the mentioned formula have an essential deficiency, which was not noted by anybody till now. They are valid only for a biological structure, consisted of the immovable molecules, i.e. for static “freezed” organism (even not dead due to the biological processes course under T=300K). By other words, the dynamics aspect of alive matter is not taken into account. But the alive organisms are the unbalanced dynamics structures and have the space and time degrees of freedom. All the biological processes are correlated in space and time.

There are only a few unique dynamics degrees of freedom in the lifeless matter. But in the unbalanced systems, where the symmetry is distorted (for example, in Benar cells), it is necessary to take into account the asymmetry of the space-time degrees of freedom of molecules.

Thus for the adequate description of the alive character it is necessary to consider the processes operations not only in space but also in time. The operated time interval or the minimal interval Δtk, dividing the observed events in alive organism, can be obtained from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in connection with the thermodynamics ordering limit (EkT).
ΔE·Δt=ħ/2, ΔkT·Δtkħ/2, Δtkħ/(2kT)    (3)
under T=300К   Δtbiotk=1.27·10-14sec, ωbio=2π/t=4.94·1014Hz

Under the change of temperature this interval Δtk, which is actually the quantum of event, also changes correspondingly. Thus the formula for the alive organism information quainty is changed by following one:
.     (4)

In this case the degree of order of alive matter is determined by the information quantity, passing through this matter under the checking and operation  processes, as well as by the time interval, when the current biological process is considered and checked. The Blumenfeld value gives the information quaintly in energetical equivalent only under t≤Δtk, when for t=1s

Correspondingly, for year (t=3·107s) Idin≈1020Istat and for whole biosphere the existing time (t=4.5·1017s) Idin≈1030Istat. Correspondingly, the passing information energetic equivalent for an organism or a set of organisms for some time period t=Δtk makes up approximately

The mentioned valuation can be obtained by another way.

It is known that the biological processes have the high degree of order. The processes checking is produced on the level of a small groups of atoms, which form the RNA nitrogen bases or the peptid fragments. Thus the space accuracy of the physical-chemical processes checking in alive cell is about Δl≤10-8÷9m, the checked volume is ΔV1≤10-24÷27m3. Taking the cell diameter as Δlcell≈10-5÷6m, the cell volume Vcell≈10-15÷18m3, we obtain for a cell Vcell/ V1≈109÷11 checked volume clasters, which coincides with the nucleotypes number or the molecule residuals in the usual plant or animal cell with the molecule mass mcl≈1014÷15=10-12÷13kg.

For the checking of the all aminoacid residuals with molecular mass ~ 150, which total number in a cell is ~ 1010, it is necessary to fix or check these molecules within a cell with a voliume V´= =V/1010≈10-25m3 in the time intervals, compared with the ones for the thermal vibrations under the temperature T=300K:

Thus for the checking of the all 1010÷11 aminoacid residuals in a cell the information flow has to make up:

For Δtk it corresponds to the energetical equivalent:
For a cell per one second .    (10)

The energetical equivalents of ordering for the different biological objects are given in the table 1.

Table 1.
time cell (1013÷14 atoms) man (1013 cells) biosphere (1029÷30 cells)
Δtk ~10-10J ~106÷7J ~1021J
1 s ~104J ~1019J ~1034÷35J
1 hour ~1011J ~1026÷27J ~1042J
4.48·1017s ~1021J ~1037J (n generations) ~1052÷53J

In particular, it follows that the energetical equivalent for the support of the space-time ordering of the biosphere alive matter, avaluated by power, prevails approximately by eight orders compared with the solar emission energy and by twenty orders compared with the part of the mentioned energy, recepted in the Earth biosphere (~1014J/s):

It follows from table 1 that the energy, passing through one cell during the Universe existence time, or during near the one (4·109 years), is equal to the energy, passing through the biosphere per the time Δtk. It proves the existence of the certain structural resonances in the matter structure and points out the form of energy, providing and supporting the alive matter ordering.

The checking time interval can be valued by another way:
where l is the distance between the separate molecule  residuals, V is the sound speed  in a matter (water, protein etc.).We can see that this result approximately coincides with the previously obtained value Δtk.

Our result corresponds to the B.Kadomtsev evaluation [6] of the energy quantity, necessary for the checking of the gas molecules in air: in the 1cm3 of air there are approximately 1019 cm3 per one molecule. Under the every molecule fixing in the volume, not less than Vo, the gas entropy configuration part is not less than N ~ 1019. Under this state fixing it will have the information I~S~1019. Under this system checking with its correction per the time intervals τ~l/cS~10-11s, where l~10-6 is the mean distance between molecules, cS=300m/s is the sound speed, i.e. for the gas movement operation it is necessary to have an information flow by the order 1030s-1, which is converted into entropy. This quantity is 1010 times more compared with the solar energy flow per 1 cm2 (4·1019 bit/cm2·s). Thus Kadomtsev made a conclusion that if somebody should like to check this process, “he has to possess the spirit potential in order to support the ordered molecules movement by the chaosation of the information flow which is like the solar flow density per one kilometer. Thus B.Kadomtsev at al. considered the ordering sources existence for the separate molecules great quantity as an unprobable. Nevertheless, such a source of ordering and equipment energy can be pointed out: it is the Universe vacuum energy, which determines its evolution and dynamics.

The whole energy of the observed Universe vacuum makes up (under (при Ωvac≈0.7):
=0.7·5.7·1053kg·9·1016m2/s2=3.59·1070J.    (13)

Basing on this energy, acting during t0=1/H0=4.48·1017s [1], we obtain the energy flow, which possesses the power
and determines the dynamics of the Universe material structures[2]. It follows that the alive matter exists due to the chaosing of the flow of the vacuum energy, which is unobserved till now but really acting. It is the unlocal process on the whole Universe level because the vacuum fields are not localized, their action is unlocal and integral.

Thus it is easy to value the Universe biomass quantity. The maximal quantity of biospheres, equal to the Earth one, cannot exceed the following:
Nbio=PU / Pbio≈1018÷19.     (15)

Under this condition the alive cells quantity in Universe makes up:
Ncel PU / Pc≈1049.     (16)

Taking into account that the alive matter is one of the structural levels of the  matter organization together with the star plasma matter, gas clouds, planets crystall structure, dark matter (DM) etc., the vacuum energy flow per one alive creature can be reduced by b-1≈10÷100 times. Taking the Earth biosphere mass mbio≈4.5·1015 kg we obtain the approximate value for the whole mass of the analogical biospheres in the whole Universe
=Nbio· mbio≈1034÷35kg≈10-18÷19MU≈10-17÷18, under ΩB,e≈0.04.    (17)

Thus for energy 1018 barions and electrons in Universe there is one barion and electron in an alive matter.

For a usual galaxy, which has the mass m*≈10-10÷11MU*≈1042÷43kg the biospheres quantity is N*≈107÷8 and their total mass[3] is ≈1023÷24kg. The alive cells quantity in a galaxy is NcelGal≈1037÷38.

At first sight it seems unprobable that the energetical equipment of the alive matter ordering is so great. But the whole energy, needed for the alive state provision, is near not only to the vacuum energy but also to the Universe gravitation energy[4]     (18)

It is known from the general relativity theory that there is a direct connection between the metrics and gravitation. It is the explanation for the approximate equivalence between the biological structure support energy and the Universe matter gravitation energy. It follows from the Einstaine equations  that the gravitation field energy is negative. It was considered by us earlier [2], that the energy and the virtual fields temperature of the so-called Rindler vacuum are also negative. That is why the matter entropy Sm=kTlnw, whereas the gravitation field entropy SG=-kTlnw. Thus we can propose a hypothesis that the entropy of these fields, including the gravitation one, is equivalent to the L.Brilluen negentropy [9], i.e. the negative entropy, which compensates the entropy production under the structural ordering of alive matter[5].

Thus the metrics, i.e. the space-time ordering of alive matter, probable can exist by the chaosing of the virtual vacuum fields quantums as well as the Universe gravitation energy quantums, which form the space-time metric according to known conception. Thus namely the vacuum energy forms synergetically the biological and others Universe structure by the provision of their energetical and metrics ordering. This topic was discussed in the other work of the author [2]. Namely the gravitation and vacuum, as it is believed at present time [5], determine the dynamics and evolution of the whole Universe[6].

Then the giant “spirit potential”, refuted by B.Kadomtsev [6], which could be necessary for the molecules movement ordering, corresponds to the covered vacuum structure with the negative energy and temperature. Namely it provides the existence of the consciousness and different forms of life [2].

In this work we have obtained the approximate formulae for the evaluation of the information and energy quantity in alive matter and also shown the qualitative and quantitative difference between alive and lifeless matters. The more exact evaluations and formulae will be given in the future works.



  1. Boukalov A.V. The exact value of the Hubble constant and the modes of evolution of the quantum Universe. // Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics.2002. — N 1. — P. 50–52.
  2. Boukalov A.V. On the possibility of existence of the field forms of life. // Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2001. — N 4. — P. 5–8.
  3. Станюкович К.П. Гравитационное поле и элементарные частицы. — М.: «Наука». 1965. — 312 с.
  4. Хайтун С.Д. Механика и необратимость. — М. «Янус». 1996. — 448 с.
  5. Долгов А.Д., Зельдович Я.Б., Сажин М.В. Космология ранней Вселенной. — М.: Изд-во Моск. ун-та, 1988. — 199 с.
  6. Kadomtsev B.B. Dynamics and information. — Moscow: Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, 1997.
  7. Reimers N.F. Popular Biological Dictionary. — M.: Nauka, 1990. — 544 pp.
  8. Blumenfeld L.A, Tikhonov A.N. Biophysical thermodynamics, molecular machines of the living cell. — New York; Berlin; Heidelberg. Springer-Verlag, 1994.
  9. Brillouin L. Science and information theory. — New York: Academic Press Inc., 1956.

[1] One should consider as a curious the “investigations” of the cost of chemical elements set in a human body: water, iron, phosphorus, carbon, etc. The total cost occurred to be near $5. Meanwhile it is clear that only the concrete proteins synthesis, as well as DNA, needs the giant expenses, the energetical and material as well. The evolution spended some milliards years for this synthesis.
[2] In particular it explains the obtained result (11), which proves that the energy flow power, neaded for the biospheres structure support, prevails by twenty orders the energy, recepted by biosphere from Sun. It is enough to note that for Earth already the Universe gravitation potential prevails the solar one by many times: φG=GMU/RU≈1012φΘ.
[3] Note, that this value is near to the mass value (6·1024 kg) of Earth, which is a planet with biosphere.
[4] The Universe gravitation energy evaluation was given by K.P.Staniukovich [3].
[5] The consideration of these questions will be carried out in a separate work.
[6] Not only the gravitation field but also a set of other fields, implied in the modern field theory, can give their contribution into the vacuum energy.

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